Inequality, Migration, & Industry 4.0 Challenge GMS Prosperity

• Editorial

Inequality, Migration, & Industry 4.0 Challenge GMS Prosperity
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The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries have made stunning progress over the past quarter century. Once plagued by poverty, they are now economic success stories.

The GMS Economic Cooperation Program (GECP) has contributed significantly to this transformation. Since it was established in 1992 as a means to enhance economic relations and promote regional cooperation, its six member countries — Cambodia, the People’s Republic of China, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam — have built a platform for economic cooperation that has mobilized almost $21 billion for high-priority infrastructure projects. Foreign direct investment (FDI) into the GMS has surged ten-fold and trade between its countries has climbed from $5 billion to over $414 billion.

But the subregion faces challenges to its prosperity. Further reducing poverty, climate change adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency, food security, and sustainable urbanisation remain priorities of the GECP. GMS countries also face new challenges, including growing inequalities, rising levels of cross-border migration, and the potential impact on jobs of the fourth industrial revolution.

Emerging Opportunities

Moreover, GMS countries have agreed to significant commitments under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on climate change.

There are also emerging opportunities for the region, including incorporating new technologies in various sectors such as education, agriculture, health, and finance. GMS countries are situated at the crossroads of South and Southeast Asia, and hence they can benefit from the increased momentum for growth in South Asia.

The recent GMS leaders meeting in Ha Noi was a good time to consider how a new generation of initiatives can ensure the GECP remains relevant and responsive to the subregion’s needs.

The Ha Noi Action Plan and the GMS Regional Investment Framework 2022 provide a platform for countries to strengthen their cooperation through continuous innovation. These two documents will have a sharpened focus on the GECPs strategic goals of enhancing connectivity, competitiveness, and community in the subregion.

Connectivity, the first objective, has been dramatically improved. More than 3,000 kilometres (1,864 miles) of transmission and distribution lines and 10,000 kilometres (about 6,214 miles) of new or upgraded roads have been added under the GECP.

These transport networks have been transformed into an interconnected network of transnational economic corridors, building on 25 years of work to extend the benefits of growth to remote areas. The Ha Noi Action Plan calls for the continued expansion of these economic corridors to boost connectivity both between and within countries.

The subregion’s competitiveness is improving through ongoing efforts to facilitate transport and trade flows, enhance agriculture exports, and promote the GMS as a single tourism destination after receiving a record 60 million visitors in 2016. Looking ahead, it will be important to continue cutting red tape and to remove remaining barriers to transport and trade.

$66 bln to Boost GMS Prosperity

Takehiko Nakao: By working together, GMS countries can deliver rapid, sustainable, and inclusive growth for another 25 years and beyond
Takehiko Nakao: By working together, GMS countries can deliver rapid, sustainable, and inclusive growth for another 25 years and beyond Asian Development Bank

Finally, communities are being strengthened through cross-border initiatives to control the spread of communicable diseases, expand educational opportunities, protect the subregion’s rich biodiversity, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

GMS countries have identified a new pipeline of 227 projects worth about $66 billion under the GMS Regional Investment Framework 2018–2022. These projects will expand economic prosperity by developing cross-border transport and energy infrastructure.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB), which has been the GECPs secretariat since its inception, expects to provide $7 billion over the next five years for a range of projects supporting transport, tourism, energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation, agribusiness value chains, and urban development.

This builds on more than $8 billion in financing provided by ADB so far under the programme.

To deliver these projects and make headway on other priorities, such as infectious disease control and environmental preservation, strong partnerships are vital. The GECP depends on the collaboration of many stakeholders, including local administrations and communities, development partners, academia, and the media.

The GMS will benefit from strengthened partnerships with other regional and global cooperation platforms, leading to new opportunities for future development.

Partnerships with the private sector will also be increasingly important, and it is gratifying to see them deepening through the GMS Business Council, the Mekong Business Initiative, the e-Commerce Platform, GMS tourism and agriculture forums, and the recent Finance Sector and Trade Finance Conference.

I am optimistic that the subregion will meet its challenges and capitalise on emerging opportunities. By working together, GMS countries can deliver rapid, sustainable, and inclusive growth for another 25 years and beyond. ADB will continue to be an important and trusted partner in that endeavour.


Feature photo Asian Development Bank


This article was written by Takehiko Nakao, President of the Asian Development Bank (ADB).



  • Securing the future prosperity of the Greater Mekong Subregion (Modern Diplomacy)
  • Vietnam plays active role in GMS trade, investment cooperation (Vietnamnet Bridge)
  • Greater Mekong Sub-region lists over 220 projects worth 66 bln USD (Xinhuanet)
  • Greater Mekong Sub-region countries seek closer business links (Xinhuanet)


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Guided by a vision of an Asia-Pacific region free from poverty through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration, the Asian Development Bank has been working to improve people’s lives since it was founded in 1966.

In 2017, ADB operations totalled $32.2 billion, including $11.9 billion in co-financing.

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